This fact sheet offers recommendations on how to make your online experiences safe and enjoyable. The following subjects will be addressed:
In recent years, more people have found the Internet a convenient way to shop, pay bills and track banking activity. The world of electronic commerce, also known as e-commerce, has expanded our purchasing abilities from local retailers to world-wide companies and expedited our ability to shop while maintaining a busy schedule.
Unfortunately, things can go wrong while shopping in cyberspace. Sometimes it is simply a case of a computer glitch or poor customer service. Other times, shoppers are cheated by hackers and thieves.
Above the web site at the top of your screen is a rectangular window that contains the web site address (also called the URL or Uniform Resource Locator). For example, see Trend Micro's free Website URL Checker link on the ITRC website. By checking that address, it can give you clues as to whether you are dealing with the correct company or a safe website.
Cyber-thieves have created web sites that look convincingly like the web sites of well known companies. These sites will capture the credit card numbers of unwary shoppers when they attempt to purchase an item. The thieves then use the stolen credit card numbers to make fraudulent purchases in the shopper’s name. If these shoppers had checked the URL at the top of the screen, they could have noticed that it was not the same URL as the real company.
Secure websites use security technology to transfer information from your computer to the online merchant’s computer. This technology scrambles (encrypts) the information you send, such as your credit card number, in order to prevent computer hackers from obtaining it.
The following items shown on your web browser will indicate a connection to a secure web site.
Do business with companies you already know. If the company is unfamiliar, investigate their authenticity and credibility. Conduct an internet search (i.e. Google, Yahoo) for the company name. The results should usually provide both positive and negative comments about the company. If there are no results, be extremely wary. Reliable companies should advertise their business address and at least one phone number, either customer service or an order line. Call the phone number and ask questions to determine if the business is legitimate. Ask how the merchant handles returned merchandise and complaints. Find out if it offers full refunds or only store credits.
You can also research a company in the Internet yellow pages, through the Better Business Bureau (see listing below), or a government consumer protection agency including the district attorney’s office or the state Attorney General. Perhaps friends or family members who live in the city listed can verify the validity of the company. Remember, anyone can create a web site.
Try to shop on a website of a business that has locations within the U.S. These stores must follow specific state and federal consumer laws. You might not get the same protection if you place an order with a company located in another country.
Look for online merchants who are members of a seal-of-approval program that sets voluntary guidelines for privacy-related practices. TRUSTe (www.truste.com) and BBB online, www.bbbonline.org, are two such programs.
The safest way to shop on the Internet is with a credit card. (Please refer to ITRC Fact Sheet FS 131 – Credit Cards vs. Debit Cards.) In the event something goes wrong, you are protected under the federal Fair Credit Billing Act. You have the right to dispute charges on your credit card, and you can withhold payments during a creditor investigation. When it has been determined that your credit was used without authorization, you can only be held responsible for the first $50 in charges. We recommend that you obtain one credit card that you use only for online payments to make it easier to detect wrongful credit charges, and to keep your other cards from being exposed.
E-commerce shopping by check leaves you vulnerable to bank fraud. Make sure your credit card is a credit card only and not a debit card, or a check card. As with checks, a debit card exposes your bank account to thieves. Further, debit cards are not protected to the extent that credit cards are by federal law.
Disclose Only the Bare Facts When You Order. Never provide a Social Security Number to a vendor. When placing an order, there is certain information that you must provide to the web merchant such as your name and address. Often, a merchant will try to obtain more information about you. This information is used to target you for marketing purposes. It can lead to “spam” or even direct mail and telephone solicitations.
Don’t answer any question you feel is not required to process your order. Often, the web site will mark which questions are mandatory with an asterisk (*). Should a company require information you are not comfortable sharing, leave the site and find a different company for the product you seek.
After placing an order online, you should receive a confirmation page that reviews your entire order. It should include the cost of your order, your customer information, product information, and the confirmation number.
Print at least one copy of the confirmation page and the web page(s) describing the item you ordered, as well as the page showing the company name, postal address, phone number, and legal terms, including return policy. Keep it for your own records for at least the period covered by the return/warranty policy.
You will often also receive a confirmation message that is e-mailed to you by the merchant. Be sure to save and/or print this message as well as any other e-mail correspondence with the company.
A company must ship your order within the time frame stated. If no time frame is stated, you should inquire how long the delivery will take. This gives you an opportunity to cancel the order and receive a prompt refund or agree to any delay.
Here are key shipping considerations:
Even under the best of circumstances, shoppers sometimes need to return merchandise. Check the web site for cancellation and return policies.
Don’t expect less customer service just because a company operates over the Internet. This is especially important if you are buying something that may need to be cleaned or serviced on occasion.
Heed the old adage, “If it looks too good to be true, it probably is.”
If any of these questions trigger a warning, you will be wise to find another online merchant or buy the product in a store.
Identity thieves are increasingly using the web to scam you and gather credit card, checking account, debit card or Social Security Numbers. Be aware of this trend. Please refer to the ITRC Fact Sheet FS 123 – Scam Assistance.
Check your credit card bills carefully for several months after purchasing on the Internet. Look for purchases you did not make. If you find some, immediately contact the credit card company and file a dispute.
Order your credit reports at least once a year and check for accounts that have been opened without your permission. Please see the ITRC Fact Sheet 125 - How to Order Your Free Credit Report.
Federal law enables shoppers to verify online purchases with merchants using an “electronic signature.” Usually, this process is nothing more than clicking on a box that says you accept the terms of the order. The Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, also known as the E-Sign Act, is a complex law. Read the Terms of Agreement carefully before completing the transaction.
Listed below are web sites that provide additional information about shopping online.
The FBI’s Internet Fraud Complaint Center allows you to report suspected cases of Internet and e-commerce fraud. www.ic3.gov
The Better Business Bureau certifies web merchants with a privacy seal of approval. You can research merchants through the BBB and also report e-commerce fraud problems at these sites. www.bbb.org and www.bbbonline.org
The Federal Trade Commission’s online shopping advice. http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/menus/consumer/tech/online.shtm
Website created by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to provide shopping tips for buying online prescriptions and over-the-counter drugs on the web. www.fda.gov/oc/buyonline
Each one of these questions represents a possible risk factor or protection against ID theft.
Your score: ____________
Range: -15 to +100.
If you scored 85 – 100 consider yourself savvy about identity theft risks; continue your proactive steps.
If you scored 45 – 84 you need to consider your identity theft risk factors more closely and take some corrective actions.
If you scored below 45, you are at high risk of becoming this crime’s next victim! Please make the effort to become more informed about identity theft and the simple steps you can take to minimize your risk.
This guide covers:
In addition to financial identity theft, there is also: criminal, governmental, medical and identity theft. Depending on the severity and complexity of your case there may be varying of difficulty in clearing your record. A stolen credit card is easier to resolve than clearing your name after someone fraudulently used your SSN to work and has filed for bankruptcy under your name. If at any time you need support or additional information, please contact the ITRC at 888-400-5530.
ITRC Fact Sheet 100A will give you a brief description and advice on the more difficult aspects of different types of identity theft. To read about each in more detail, please refer to the links under each category. We suggest you look over our victim assistance fact sheets and/or solutions for any that you may find helpful on other topics.
Someone Working Under Your Name: When someone is working as you, several types of problems may occur, on both the federal and state level. (Please see ITRC Solution 27). The first step is to contact the Social Security Administration and ask for a detailed non-certified copy of your work history. Click hereto download the application. Review the report carefully to see if there is anything suspicious such as work history in a state that you have never lived in.
Government Benefit Fraud: (this can be due to identity theft or simply clerical error)
IRS issues: (Please see ITRC Solution 27) Some victims find out about an identity theft case when the following issues occur. In all of these situations, the initial step is to contact the IRS Identity Protection Specialized Unit, toll-free at 800-908-4490.
You also may contact the IRS Taxpayer Advocate if you have an unresolved issue related to identity theft, or you have suffered, or are about to suffer a significant hardship as a result of the administration of the tax laws, i.e. wage garnishment. Visit the IRS Taxpayer Advocate Service (TAS)Identity Theft webpage. Additional information is also available on the IRS website.
Examples of IRS issues include:
Debt Collection: Never pay a bill that you don’t owe. See ITRC Fact Sheet 116 for complete details.
Bankruptcy Issues: All bankruptcies need to be addressed by the Office of the Trustee of the U.S. Bankruptcy Court. Under federal law, bankruptcies declared by an imposter can be reversed. This is a situation in which you may wish to consult an attorney to make sure the paperwork is filed correctly. For more information read “Fresh Start or False Start - Identity Theft and Bankruptcy Cases” by the Office for U.S. Trustees http://www.justice.gov/ust/eo/public_affairs/articles/docs/idtheftfinal.htm
· If you are planning on filing fbankruptcy yourself, but are experiencing identity theft, make sure you do not include any of the fraudulently opened accounts in your bankruptcy. Including them means you take responsibility for them and they can no longer be considered identity theft. Read ITRC Fact Sheet 100 for instructions on how to clear these accounts.
· If you have already filed for bankruptcy, and have included accounts that are part of your identity theft into your petition for bankruptcy, there is not much that can be done. Including accounts in a bankruptcy means you take full responsibility for them and any debt you may be held responsible for on them in the future. If you know who the thief is you may be able to civilly sue them for the amount owed. Speak to the Office of the Trustee of the U.S. Bankruptcy Court. Speak to an attorney about your rights.
Fraudulent Change of Address: If you suspect mail theft or mail fraud, contact the U.S. Postal Inspectors (USPIS) at 800-275-8777. When you move, a “change address form” is sent to both the new address and old address. Should you receive a notification and you haven’t moved, this is a warning to contact the USPIS immediately. A contact phone number is provided on the form you receive.
Student Loans: If it appears that someone has applied for and received a student loan in your name without your approval, you need to take action quickly. If you already have proof of a problem, call the U.S. Dept. of Education Inspector General’s Hotline: (800) MIS-USED (800-647-8733). Also, contact the three Credit Reporting Agencies (See ITRC Solution 3) and order copies of all three of your credit reports.
Report any fraudulent activity to the police by filing a police report. A police report will help you to establish your status as a victim and provides you specific rights under state and federal laws.
In some cases, parents apply for student loans under their children’s names and the police mistakenly believe that since the victim benefited from the loan, it is not a crime. That is not true. Any use of your information without your consent is fraud and a crime. If you are unsure of how to proceed due to family issues, contact the ITRC toll-free at 888-400-5530.
DMV issues: When you become aware that someone else may have a driver’s license with your information, you need to speak with the DMV fraud investigator or Department of Public Safety in your state, or in the state where the problem is occurring. This action will start an investigation to determine the real license holder. Should you lose your driver’s license, you will need to go back into your local office and have it replaced. Bring identifying information with you so that they can ensure you are the true licensee and not an imposter.
Property Deeds: Lost/Stolen property deeds should be reported to the County Register’s office. Fraud involving a property deed should be reported to the County Register’s Office in the state where the property is located as well as the victim’s local police department.
US Savings Bonds: If your US Saving’s bond is lost, stolen, or destroyed, you will need to report it to the US Department of Treasury. Form PD P 0107 will guide you through the process. If the bond was stolen, file a police report for the theft.
Identity Theft in Domestic Situations: (Please refer to ITRC Fact Sheets 115 – When you personally know the identity thief and ITRC Fact Sheet 115A if it is a spouse.) Each case is unique. Identity theft in a domestic situation has a varied emotional and financial impact on the victim. This requires the assistance of a specially trained advocate. Please contact the ITRC toll-free at 888-400-5530.
Medical Identity Theft: You might find this has occurred if you receive a bill for medical or pharmacy services, or you have been alerted, via an Explanation of Benefits, from your health insurance company of the use of your health insurance information. Refer to ITRC Fact Sheet 130 and ITRC Fact Sheet 130A for this type of case.
Checking Accounts: Please refer to ITRC Fact Sheet 126, which goes through this issue in detail. You should file a police report in any of the following situations and send a copy of the police report to any creditors affected by the identity theft.
There are several types of checking account issues, including:
In some states, a bounced check may eventually result in a warrant for your arrest. You need to clear the account problem with the bank and merchant, and also have that bank or merchant contact law enforcement to drop all charges. You will need to follow-up with the issuer of the warrant (usually the District Attorney’s Office) to be assured that the warrant is withdrawn. Don’t forget to get a “Letter of Clearance” that you will keep permanently.